Ship Modelling


Q: "How can I find out more?"

It is easy to build a kit out of the box ... it is fun, and every modeller starts like this. It is a hobby :)

Or, You begin to doupt when You realize that some plans and depictions cannot be correct compared to the real sailing ship. Today I know why: the companies that produce the kits simplified the plans and thus made the model easier to build, in order not to "overdemand" the average hobby modeller.

Most model kits have a "box art", a superb painting of the ship as the front cover of the box, to attract people to buy the kit. These box arts are eye catchers indeed ... but maritime artists also make "mistakes" that only very few will ever notice. Especially photorealistic paintings showing a dramatic scene make us believe that any detail was exactly as depicted in the image - it is regarded as a photo, because it looks like a photo.

For example, this box art of the Airfix model kit Royal Sovereign (Classic Ship Series, now sold out long ago).

I *love* this picture! It is so inspiring ... so what is wrong with it? Is there anything "wrong" here at all? - Yes, just a small detail:

The Fore Topgallant sail shows 4 buntlines; it should have only one, if any, like this:

The artists (I would like to know his name!) applied modern patterns for buntlines to an ancient ship - that is the "mistake".

How do we know that? There is an old engraving preserved of the HMS Royal Sovereign (1637), which is today the "blue print" for all model kits of this ship. That engraving shows in fact no buntlines for the topgallants, but 2 leechlines (correct in the box art) and 2 slab lines(!) behind the sail

Now we could discuss what image is more "reliable" ... after all it is ranking two images, made by artists who knew both quite a lot of rigging, because their depictions are both very detailed.

I made my first Airfix model of the HMS Royal Sovereign (1637) back in 1980. This was also the initial trigger for my interest in details like this. Yet, the kit was quite easy and it was not necessary to "fix" things like this (unless You start building "on scratch"). Today I build my second Airfix kit of the same ship, but with more emphasis to historic accuracy.

In my "private career" as a modeller, I noticed so many "strange things", and so, 100 questions came up to my mind ...

Another example: the marvellous paintings of clipper ships show them with all available canvas set. Such a picture is very impressing, indeed ...

... but while most people keep being impressed, I see details, e.g. the Stunsails (pronounciation of Studding Sails), extra sails apperently set to both sides of all yards! They are supposed to be set in light weather conditions only - and here we see them all set in a gale like this? Sorry, but something must be wrong here ... as a hobby painter, I made a similar painting as a student, and I made the same "error" by simply not knowing about studding sails, that is: how weak they are.

This truely magnificant artwork was painted by Montague Dawson in the 1950s (and reproduced over and over since then), when all clippers except the Cutty Sark had disappeared long ago. Stunsails came out of use between 1870 and 1900, just when steam shipping "phased out" all sailing ships.

The last sailing ships setting Stunsails were training ships (e.g the Swedish Jarramas and Najaden). The knowledge about their usage is almost completely lost: there is very few information at all about this detail, and only a handful of original photos, as photography became usuable not before 1860.

When I became interested in these questions some 30 years ago, I knew nobody who could answer to those questions. So what could I do to find out more? I was still a kid, and the internet was yet completely beyond any imagination, back in 1975. Even most seamen of today no longer have a clue about sail rigging, or its history - modern ships no longer have sails.

Eventually I turned to books as my first sources. I started collecting books for my private library ... and I am still continuing.

Back to Stunsails again:

Dana´s book "Two Years before The Mast" was referred to by C. Nepean Longridge (in his "bible" about the Cutty Sark!) as an evidence that studding sails in fact had been set even on races around Cape Horn - and when I wrote the text for this page, I have to admit that I did miss that, but it is described nearly at the end of Danas book; Dr. Ottfried Thümmel now sent me a mail, and he indeed found the chapter I was obviously missing, as I previously doupted it: but it was in chapter XXXIII (33), where Dana describes how a fore top stunsail (which side is not mentioned, but obviously only ONE side) has been added to the rigg, despite there was a gale, and the all hands on deck first thought that the captain was M-A-D ... but they carried out the orders. It was a hard work of one hour to set it at all in the strong wind - with ALL hands for ONE sail! -, and to secure it. The top stunsail boom was of special spruce wood that bowed under the enormous pressure without carrying away...the ship was then almost "flying" over the waves, giving the helmsmen a hard time!

Then, they also added the lower fore stunsail, too (!), but that blew away short time after that. And for two days, the top stunsail was still up with the ordinary courses and reefed topsails, adding speed up to 11 knots for the ship, until the wind lessened eventually.

It was also described that this new stunsail had a unique feature: a reef! It sounded like they had only this one for one side, as they speak of only one, which could be used on any side as needed.

OK, this IS an evidence, thank You to correct me, Mr. Thümmel! I want to encourage anybody, if You have some comments, pls send them to me!

BUT: I still think it was not common to use the stunsails in such a daring way. Some ships may have done so, but then only the clipper ships, but doing it like Montagues pictures suggests, it was right at the edge to hazard the entire rigging, and to get totally dismasted eventually.

Q: "How do we know? What sources do we have?"

or: The Myth of "Original" ...

We have in fact very little evidence. We have to rely on ancient sources as books and depictions. The rigging of old ships, with the exception of only a handful of wrecks found, is lost entirely. Secondary literature, which is most of our material available today, is only resampling and reconstructing these ancient descriptions.
  • Contemporary and Modern Models

    Well, building a model after a (better) model is of course an "option", but those models usuable for this are very rare, indeed, and are all in a museum, or hidden in a private collection. Those models are definitely not for lending, like books. So the only thing one can do in a museum is: making pictures: photos or self made drawings. IF making photos is allowed ...
  • Ancient Depictions and Illustrations

    • Artworks: Drawings, Paintings, Lithographies and Prints

      The quality of these images are depending on the maritime knowledge of the artist. The images vary from "very naive" and unclear to photorealistic. Before the era of the Renaissance, "realistic" depictions are non-existent to our modern sense. Most details interesting to a modeller are missing. But between 1500 and 1900, realistic maritime artworks have been made in abundance; many captains were proud to have a portrait of their ships in the cabine. Most of them are preserved in the museums or private collections.

      But, a photorealistic picture can be misleading quite easily, just because it is so realistic. And because it is a standing picture and not a movie - it freezes a short moment and shows it in eternity - , the image makes us believe that the rigging depicted had been applied all the life span of the ship, over decades - this is not true! A steady painting of a ship completely hides the flexibility that a rigging always had. The backstays wave in the winds and smack against anything in their ways - unless they are secured, by means missing in the pictures. Top mast spars were often under repair (fatigue fractures) and change, or they were taken down, because a lofty rigging is a safety hazard in a storm: it is useless because the royals and topgallants cannot be set, and even without sails, the storm can blow the top rigging away.

      Thus, the entire rigging was overhauled maybe several times a year! There is no "original" condition, the rigging changed all the time over the lifespan of the ship.

      On the other hand, these images are our only depictions available before photography was invented and became usuable after 1870.

      Modern artworks, made after photography was used, can be even more misleading, to a "naive" observer. Those artists often consulted photography as sources for their paintings, to make them more realistic:

      Obviously, they were quite successful, like Spurling in 1924, but their images are just as questionable as the ancient artworks, when You go into details: here, the stunsail tacks go forward on deck. In this wind, the strain on the booms from abaft is so strong that it is much more likely to let the tacks lead abaft and haul them taut, to secure the stunsails in their position ...just my 2 cents :)

      Please do not think I am too picky about this - a captain of these days would have felt being insulted to see his ship portrayed almost perfectly - "but, hey, there are only 6 main shrouds, we have 7, can´t You SEE?"

    • Photographies

      It has become so extremely easy to makes photos in our time that it becomes ever more inimaginable how difficult it was in the early days ... The quality of all photographies was depending on these limiting facts:
      • Exposure time: several seconds at least allowed only for depicting of non-moving objects: ships in a calm harbour: or, the exposure time was so long that all water waves were "merged" into the illusion of a perfect calm!

        The clipper Halloween

      • Focal Lenses: many photos were rather unsharp, as the quality of the lenses was not as high as today. This was the major cause of the "bad quality" of so many images.

      • Aperture: in combination with the exposure time, details were often shined out. To make those pictures usuable for reproduction, some were heavily retouched, deleting even more details.

        Example: the only known photo of the clipper Thermopylae with sails:

        image of the Thermopylae, retouched
        (found in Lubbock: The Log of the Cutty Sark, p.289)

        the non-retouched image - but with a moiré :/
        (found in Hume/Armstrong: The Cutty Sark and Thermopylae Era of Sail, p.42)

      • Granularity: in combination with the size of the photo plate (the negative with the emulsion), the depiction of details was limited. Photo plates were small, because the chemicals were expensive.

      I do not know a single photo showing a sailing clipper ship with stunsails. I only know many non-photographic images that show them, but many are questionable.

      Virtually all early photos show sailing ships with sails furled or drying in a harbour. And of those rare ones showing sails, only a small part show enough details. Later photos were better, but at as time went by, the old ships were lost.

      We today, in 2009, are so used to look at 1000 *excellent* images (or more) each day. In 1909, the sheer existing of a single photo reproduced in a book was a sensation! Those old images are all utterly rare, especially to our overfed eyes. But, when You find an image usuable for rigging research, it tells You more than an entire book:

      The wool clipper Argonaut. 90% of the running rigging can be identified and thus reconstructed, using this single image!
      (found in Hume/Armstrong: The Cutty Sark and Thermopylae Era of Sail)

  • Contemporary Sources and Secondary Books

    There are of course books that contain a lot of images mentioned above, but they also contain many information that was not possible to depict. For instance, the orders given to set or furl sails, tables with all proportions and instructions how to build a ship and how to make sails.

    The problem is: how reliable are these soucres?

    What is "reliable"? - or: Why do I doubt?

    The deeper You go back into history, the less original documents are preserved. Those we have do not tell us very much, and what they tell us is not a strong evidence. From a forensic point of view, it is just a bunch of contradictory testimonies.

    Example: a document of the 16th century mentioning the famous Mayflower described the ship simply as having "160 tons" - and that´s it!!! We know NOTHING more about this ship than that. Another contemporary document says that she had "130 tons", and nothing more (at least about the ship). Well, these tons may refer to different cargos, and we also can doupt how it was measured ... or estimated :)

    For the contemporary people, all that was of no interest, the ship was nothing more than a vehicle to sail to a destination, and to carry some amount of cargo and passengers. What formed our modern cliché about this ship is entirely a result of reconstruction, from quite contradictory "facts".

    Then, 95% of all the literature was written in the last 50 years, it is secondary literature, which reconstructs many things that never even had been mentioned in any original sources, which contain only a few details, if any. A few books from the 18th century, like the famous "Steels Elements", do contain many details indeed, but they do not document a special ship "as built", but a number of ways how ships should have been built in those days - these are patterns. It can only be assumed (or doubted as well) how far these rules were followed.

    I have more on books here in my library :)

Personal Researches

It is all but reconstruction ... I spent many evenings over my books.

Be careful what examples or books You rely on, even the very best of them can be "wrong", that is: it can be prooved that a special detail never had functioned the way it is shown.

Just one example: a rope can never lead through the capstan bars. Why not? The rope and the capstan make each other malfunctioning. But this is what You see at THE most famous Admiralty Model, of the HMS Prince in the Science Museum in London!

How come? The model was built in the 17th century, but the rigging was added in the 19th century. Since it is an Admiralty model having no planks, all details upon the planks added afterwards must be wrong without planks which are still "missing".

At this point, You are on Your very own, when no other sources are available. The ropes I am talking about here are actually the braces of the Fore yards coming down from the stays. They led most probably to the forecastle rails.

This is what research is about: look and think!

Here are some 100 books dedicated to ship modelling:
AIRFIX magazine annual for modellers
Ellis, Chris PSL 1971 96
American Ship Models and how to build them
Grimwood,V.R. Bonanza Books 1952 188
Building & Detailing Scale Model Ships
FineScale Modeler Magazine (English)
Ashey, Mike Airlife Publishing 1996 110
Building a Clipper Ship
Coleman, H.S. Modelcraft Ltd. (1960) 70
Building Model Ships from Scratch
Porter, Kent TAB Books 1977 377
Building Plank-on-Frame Ship Models
McCarthy, Ron Conway 2004 192
Captain Cook´s Endeavour
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Marquardt, Karl-Heinz Conway 1995 136
Chinesische Flussdschunken
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Wieg, P. + Freyer, J. DK 1988 80
Church Ships
Harvey, Basil The Canterbury Press 1994 78
Collection of Ship Models
Henry Huddleston Rogers United States Naval Academy Museum 1971 138
CSS Alabama - Anatomy of a Confederate Raider
Bowcock, Andrew Chatham Publishing 2002 192
Cutty Sark
Classic Ships (airfix) (English)
Hackney, Noel C.L. PSL 1974 96
Das Grosse Buch der Schiffsmodelle - international
Williams, Guy R. Umschau Verlag 1973 256
Das Hanseschiff im ausgehenden 15. Jahrhundert
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Winter, Heinrich VEB Hinstorff 1968 68
Das historische Schiffs als Modell 2
Das historische Schiffs als Modell (German)
Albert, Alfred Koehler 1985 116
Das historische Schiffs als Modell 3
Das historische Schiffs als Modell (German)
Albert, Alfred Koehler 1988 112
Das historische Schiffs als Modell 4
Das historische Schiffs als Modell (German)
Albert, Alfred Koehler 1990 78
Das historische Schiffs als Modell 5 - exzellente Miniaturmodelle
Das historische Schiffs als Modell (German)
Albert, Alfred Koehler 1991 88
Das Modellbaubuch - Tips und Anregungen
Revell 1976 128
Das PELLER-Modell von 1603
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Jaeger, Werner DK 1973 128
Der holländische Zweidecker von 1660 / 1670
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Winter, Heinrich DK 1967 54
Der Schiffsmodellbau nach historischen Vorbildern
Lusci, Vincenzo Alexander Engel KG (1960) 180
Die Brigg
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Dåbritz/Quinger DK 1983 64
Die Fregatten Peter und Paul und Heiliger Paul
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Wagner, Wolf-Dietrich DK 1966 44
Die Kolumbusschiffe von 1492
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Winter, Heinrich VEB Hinstorff 1968 68
Die Mayflower
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Hackney, Noel C.L. DK 1978 80
Die Schebecke und andere Schiffstypen des Mittelmeeres
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Mondfeld, Wolfram zu VEB Hinstorff 1974 64
Die Schiffe des Christoforo Colombo
Mondfeld, Wolfram zu Koehler 1991 216
Die schönsten Schiffsmodelle der Welt
Das historische Schiffs als Modell (German)
Albert, Alfred Koehler 1984 112
Down-Easter - Building a Model of the BENJAMIN F.PACKARD
Bragdon, R.W. Falmouth Publishing House 1954 110
Enzyklopädie des Schiffsmodellbaus
Curti, Orazio DK 1992 520
Gedeckte Korvette Elisabeth
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Greven, Hermann-Joachim VEB Hinstorff 1991 120
Historische Modellschiffe
Mondfeld, Wolfram zu Heyne 1980 310
Historische Schiffsmodelle
Mondfeld, Wolfram zu Orbis verlag 1995 380
Historischer Schiffsmodellbau - Schritt für Schritt gezeigt
Reed, Philip Verlag für Technik und Handwerk 2003 136
HMS Beagle - Survey Ship extraordinary
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Marquardt, Karl-Heinz Conway 1997 128
How to make Clipper Ship Models
Hobbs, Edward W. Brown, Son & Ferguson 1960 216
How to make Old Time Ship Models
Hobbs, Edward W. Brown, Son & Ferguson 1962 208
How to make Ship Block Models
Davis, Charles G. Edward W. Sweetman Co, NY 1970 150
Hur man bygger fartygsmodeller
Ellerström+Ohrelius P A Norstedt & Söners Förlag 1972 104
Klipperschiffe des 19.Jahrhunderts
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Hölzel, Wolfgang DK 1976 82
Knochenschiffe - Die Prisoner-of-War Modelle 1775-1814
Mondfeld, Wolfram zu Koehler 1989 238
Last Days of Mast and Sail
Moore, Alan Oxford University Press 1925 260
Le Vaisseau de 74 canons - Tome 1
Boudriot, Jean Éditions des 4 Segnieurs 1974 166
Le Vaisseau de 74 canons - Tome 2
Boudriot, Jean Éditions des 4 Segnieurs 1974 212
Le Vaisseau de 74 canons - Tome 3
Boudriot, Jean Éditions des 4 Segnieurs 1975 280
Le Vaisseau de 74 canons - Tome 4
Boudriot, Jean Éditions des 4 Segnieurs 1977 382
Classic Ships (airfix) (English)
Hackney, Noel C.L. PSL 1970 80
Model Sailing Boats
Cassells Model Series (English)
Hobbs, Edward W. Cassell 1923/1941 312
Model Shipwright - An Anthology 1972-1997
Bowen, John Conway 1997 192
model shipwright INDEX 1972-1997
model shipwright (Conway) 1997 32
model shipwright vol I (numbers 1-4)
model shipwright (Conway) 1978 416
model shipwright vol IV (numbers 13-16)
model shipwright (Conway) 1977 416
Modelismo naval
Guillén, Julio O. Doncel 1963 186
Modellbau von Schiffen des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Hoeckel, Rolf DK 1966 128
Modellbouw van schepen 16de en 17de eeuw
Modellbaureihe DK (Dutch)
Hoeckel, Rolf P.N. van Kampen 1979 128
Modeller af vore gamle sejlskibe - vejledning for modelbyggere
Kisling, H.M. Borgens Forlag 1972 168
Modelling Ships in Bottles
Needham, Jack PSL 1972 64
Modelling Thames Sailing Barges
Freeston+Kent model shipwright (Conway) 1975+ 96
Modelling the Archibald Russell
Bowness, Edward Marshall 1947 84
Modelling the Brig-of-War Irene
Petrejus, E.W. N.V.Uitgeversmaatschappij De Esch 1970 286
Modelling the Cutty Sark
Bowness, Edward MAP 1976 60
Modelling the Golden Hinde
model shipwright (Conway) 1973 96
Norman Lindsay´s Ship Models
Angus & Robertson 1966 100
Old Ships Figure-Heads and Sterns
Laughton, L.C.Carr Dover 1925/2001 282
Om fartygsmodeller
Statens Sjöshistoriska Museum Meddelanden I (Swedish)
Albe, Gerhard Statens sjöhistoriska museum 1947 95
Plank-on-Frame Models and Scale Masting and Rigging Vol I+II
Underhill, Harold A. Brown, Son & Ferguson 1958/1974 160+160
Prins Willem
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Ketting, Herman DK 1981 144
Prisoner-of-War Ship Models
Freeston, Ewart C. Nautical Publishing 1973 174
Rigging Period Ship Models
Petersson, Lennarth Catham Publishing, London 2000 120
Risse von Schiffen des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Hoeckel + Jorberg + Loef + Szymanski + Winter VEB Hinstorff 1970 100
Rundhölzer, Tauwerk und Segel
Schrage, Klaus Koehler 1989 188
Sail Training and Cadet Ships
Underhill, Harold A. Brown, Son & Ferguson 1956 374
Sailing Ship Models
Nance, R.Morton Halton & Company 1949 82
Sailing Ship Rigs & Rigging
Underhill, Harold A. Brown, Son & Ferguson 1938/1969 128
Sailing Ships - Their History and Development - Part I
Science Museum, London 1932/1947 115
Sailing Ships - Their History and Development - Part II
Science Museum, London 1932/1947 120
Sailing Ships of War 1400-1860 ---
Howard, Frank Conway 1979 254
Scale Model Sailing Ships
Bowen, John Conway 1977 192
Scale Model Warships
Bowen, John Conway 1978 192
Schiffe aus Knochen und Elfenbein
Altonaer Museum in Hamburg 1976
Schiffe unterm Roten Adler
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Schmidt, Günther DK 1986 84
Hansen, Hans-Jürgen Stalling (1980) 166
Mondfeld, Wolfram zu Mosaik Verlag 1984 240
Schlachtschiff Tirpitz
Vom Original zum Modell (German)
Koop, G. + Schmolke, K-P Bernard & Graefe Verlag 1990 56
Schoner in Nord und Süd
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Marquardt, Karl-Heinz DK 1990 296
Schwere Fregatte Wappen von Hamburg - Leichte Fregatte Berlin
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Winter, Heinrich VEB Hinstorff 1961 100
Seventeenth Century Rigging
Anderson, R.C. Marshall 1955 146
Ship Model Building
Johnson, Gene CMP 1943/1961 300
Ship Model Making - Vol I
McCann, E. Armitage The Norman W Henley Publishing Co 1926 130
Ship Model Making - Vol II - Clipper Ship
McCann, E. Armitage The Norman W Henley Publishing Co 1926 150
Ship Model Making - Vol III - USS Constitution
McCann, E. Armitage The Norman W Henley Publishing Co 1926 206
Ship Modeller´s Shop Notes
Edson, Merritt Nautical Research Guild 1979 216
Ship modelling hints & tips
Craine, J.H. Conway 1973 118
Ship Models - How to Build Them
Davis, Charles G. Dover 1925/1986 140
Ship Models Illustrated
Harman, F.Ward Marine Model Company 1961 128
Shipbuilding in Miniature
MacNarry, Donald Percival Marshall 1955 160
Ships and Ship Models Vol 1 (1931 - 1932)
Percival Marshall 1977 384
Ships and Ship Models Vol V (1935 - 1936)
Percival Marshall 1935 390
Skepp Fartyg och Båtar - Verktyg och metoder för modellbygge
Ellerström+Ohrelius Norstedts 1971 148
Skeppet i Flaskan
Landström, Björn
Sovereign of The Seas - How to make a model of the American Clipper Ship
McCann, E. Armitage Edward W. Sweetman Co, NY 1967 150
The 100-gun ship Victory
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
McKay, John Conway 2004 120
The 24-gun Frigate Pandora
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
McKay, J. + Coleman, R. Conway 1992 128
The 32-gun Frigate Essex
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Takakjian, Portia Conway 1990 128
The 44-gun Frigate USS Constitution
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Marquardt, Karl-Heinz Conway 2005 128
The 74-gun ship Bellona
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Lavery, Brian Conway 1985 120
The Armed Transport Bounty
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
McKay, John Conway 1989 120
The Art of Rigging
Biddlecombe, G + Pentecost,E.H. Edward W. Sweetman Co, NY 1848/1969 156
The Battleship Fuso
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Conway 1998 256
The Battleship Yamato
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Conway 1988 192
The Bomb Vessel Granado 1742
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Goodwin, Peter Conway 1989 128
The Built-Up Ship Model
Davis, Charles G. Edward W. Sweetman Co, NY 1933/1966 210
The Four-Masted Barque Lawhill
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Edwards + Anderson + Cookson Conway 1996 128
The Grabtree Collection of Miniature Ships
Crabtree, August F. The Mariners Museum, VA 1969 50+
The Model Ship Builders´ Manual of Fittings and Guns
Isard, A.P. Faber 1929 328
The Schooner Bertha L Jones
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Greenhill, B. + Manning, S. Conway 1995 128
The Ship Model Builder Assistent
Davis, Charles G. Dover 1926/1988 275
The Ships of Christopher Columbus - Santa Maria, Nina, Pinta
Anatomy of the Ship (English)
Pastor, Xavier Conway 1992 120
The World of Model Ships and Boats
Williams, Guy R. Deutsch, André + Rainbird 1971 256
Unter Segeln - Vom Einbaum zum Hightech-Segler
Veres + Woodman DK 1999 352
Vane Steering Gears
Wilcock, A. MAP (1975) 24
Von der Fregatte zum Vollschiff
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Dåbritz, R. + Quinger, W. DK 1987 136
Wappen von Hamburg I
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Quinger, Wolfgang DK 1980 80
Wappen von Hamburg III - ein schwimmender Barockpalast
Hamburg Portrait (German)
Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte 1977 12
Warships of the Royal Navy - First Series: Sail (Kingsize!!!)
Gardner, John Hugh Evelyn 1968 64
Waterline Ship Models
Brown, John Conway 1972 114
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
von Fircks, Jochen VEB Hinstorff 1979 80
Schönfeldt, Peter Koehler 1998 152
Windjammer Modelling
Monk, Clive Faber 1954 128
Workshop Hints & Tips - A Model Engineer Handbook
Geometer MAP 1969 60
Modellbaureihe DK (German)
Winkler, Hermann VEB Hinstorff 1986 160